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Waste Management

Outside of cities and large towns there is no access to any form of waste water treatment, and even within cities sewerage coverage is extremely limited, in Kampala at less than 10%. Pit latrines are consequently the default sanitation option in East Africa, essentially a large pit dug in the ground and covered with a floor slab that contains a hole to accept human waste.

Improvements can be made to facilitate cleaning such as embedding a ceramic squatting toilet pan or plastic saTo pan. When the pit is full, it is usually sealed over and the area is rendered unusable. There are several preferred sanitation options to consider. Sanitation blocks should be built away from other accommodation and functional spaces to minimise smell and insect nuisance.

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Ventilated Pit Latrine 

Adding a ventilation pipe to a pit latrine can eliminate odours and aid fly control. Lining a pit latrine ensures it can be mechanically emptied and reused.

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Ecosan Toilet

Ecological sanitation principally involves separating out urine from solid waste (urine diversion) and recycling both for use as fertiliser.

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Vermifilter Toilet

The vermifilter toilet is a cheap and low maintenance composting toilet system, which uses tiger worms to create a rich and odour-free fertiliser.



A bio-latrine is a low maintenance system comprising of a toilet and simple biodigester unit that turns human waste into fuel and fertiliser.

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Water Based System

Water flush systems require substantial amounts of water. To deal with water-based waste a complex settlement tank and soakaway system is required.

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